National Lightning Safety Institute - Providing expert training and consulting for lightning problems

NLSI Site Map

This page lists the contents of the entire NLSI website. For foreign language translations of this page or any page on this website, see below.

1 About NLSI
1.1 Mission Statement
1.2 Board of Advisors
1.3 The Zeus Club (for school kids)
1.4 NLSI International Lightning Safety Initiative
  1.4.1 Example of Recent Lightning Safety Efforts in Bangladesh
  1.4.2 Colombo Declaration on Lightning Protection & Safety
  1.4.3 Script for Lightning Safety DVD
  1.4.4 Fourteen Points to Lightning Safety
  1.4.5 Lightning Protection at Military Storage Explosives Facilities
  1.4.6 Employee Safety at Open Pit Mines in Peru, Tanzania, the Dominican Republic and the USA
  1.4.7 Colorado High-Altitude Lightning Protection: A Case Study at 10th Mountain Hut Association
  1.4.8 Lightning Safety in the Mining Industry
  1.4.9 Dynasphere ESE Issues
  1.4.10 Grounding/Bonding/SPDs Are Essential for LP
1.5 CV of NLSI Founder & CEO Richard Kithil Jr.
1.6 pending
1.7 Photos of NLSI Activities
Got questions about these? Contact us!
1.8 Registered Trademarks AMMO 50 & AMMO 48
2 NLSI Business Services
2.1 Auditing, Compliance, Consulting, and Inspection Services
  2.1.1 NLSI conducts a broad Range Consulting of Services
  2.1.2 Need a Quick Site Evaluation?
  2.1.3 Want to establish a Lightning Safety Committee?
  2.1.4 NLSI Competencies
  2.1.5 Site Inspection for Lightning Hazard Mitigation
  2.1.6 Results of Typical Consulting Assignment
  2.1.7 Certification and Inspection Services for Lightning Protection Systems
2.2 Classes, Seminars, and Workshops
  2.2.1 NLSI's Lightning Safety Courses
  2.2.2 AMMO 48/NFPA-780, Inspection, Maintenance, and Testing of the LPS (3-day seminar)
  2.2.3 AMMO 50/NFPA-780, Senior LPS Inspector Qualifications (3-day course)
  2.2.4 Lightning Protection for Civilian Engineers (3-day seminar)
  2.2.5 NLSI Teaching Schedule
2.3 Codes and Standards
  2.3.1 US Air Force AFM 32-1065, Grounding and Electrical Systems
  2.3.2 DoD UFC 3-575-01, Lightning and Static Electricity Protection Systems
  2.3.3 NFPA-780
2.4 Research Site
High Altitude Lightning Observation Site (HALOS)
2.5 Previous Activities for Clients
Examples of Previous Activities for NLSI Clients
3 Lightning Incidents
3.1 Lightning Fatalities, Injuries, and Damage Reports in The United States
3.2 Lightning Costs and Losses from Attributed Sources
3.3 Lightning's Social and Economic Costs
3.4 35 Years of Lightning Deaths and Injuries
3.5 Selected Incidents from the "It Can't Happen to Me" Library
3.6 Aviation Losses from Lightning Strikes
3.7 Statistics from
3.8 Manifestations Of Lightning Deaths And Injuries
3.9 How Much Does Lightning Impact Business?
3.10 Lightning-Caused Deaths and Injuries in and near Dwellings and Other Buildings (PDF file)
3.11 Industrial Lightning Accidents, France (PDF file)
3.12 Industrial Lightning Accidents, Other Countries (PDF file)
3.13 Review of Failures, Causes & Consequences in the Bulk Storage Industry (PDF file)
3.14 Night flight from the International Space Station above the Earth (link to NASA site)
Fact: 75-100 lightning strikes per second hit our planet.
3.15 Photo of lightning death (due to poor shelter) at High Altitude Mining Site
3.16 Is a Car Really a Safe Place to Be when Lightning Strikes?
4 Personal Lightning Safety
4.1 Decision Tree for Personal Lightning Safety
4.2 Multi-Agency Recommendations for Lightning Safety
4.3 Information for Lightning Strike Victims 
4.4 Lightning Safety Tips
4.5 Lightning Safety in NLSI's Home Town (Louisville, CO)
  4.5.1 Louisville Ball fields
  4.5.2 Louisville Parks
  4.5.3 Louisville Pools
4.6 Lightning Safety for Organized Outdoor Athletic Events
4.7 Indoor/Outdoor Swimming Pool Safety
  4.7.1 Lightning and Aquatics Safety: A Cautionary Perspective for Indoor Pools
  4.7.2 YMCA Guidelines for Indoor Pools Closing Due to Lightning (PDF file)
  4.7.3 More Thoughts on Lightning Safety and Pools
  4.7.4 Lightning and Indoor Pools: A Reply to Aquatics Resources eSplash Newsletter
  4.7.5 Lightning Safety for People at Swimming Pools
  4.7.6 Lightning Safety for People at Swimming Pools
4.8 Lightning Safety for Campers and Hikers
4.9 Boating Lightning Safety
  4.9.1 Boating Lightning Protection
4.10 Lightning Safety for Outdoor Workers
4.11 Good Lightning Shelters For Outdoor Workers
4.12 Lightning: The Underrated Weather Hazard
4.13 NCAA Sports Medicine Handbook Lightning Safety Guideline (PDF file)
4.14 A Lightning Safety Mandate For The Game Of Golf
4.15 US Golf Association Lightning Warning Information
4.16 National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Lightning Safety for Athletics and Recreation (PDF file)
4.17 Backcountry Safety Reminders (PDF file)
4.18 temporarily removed
4.19 ¿Está preparado para una tormenta eléctrica?
4.20 Ramp Safety for Airport Personnel Evacuation, Lightning Threat: Literature Review from NLSI Library, Sept 24, 2018
4.21 Developing a Lightning Awareness Program Model for the Third World Based on American-South Asian Experience (PDF file)
4.22 Many medical abstracts about lightning deaths and injuries (from
4.23 Lightning Safety in Remote Areas (PDF file)
4.24 Lightning Caused Deaths and Injuries in the Vicinity of Vehicles (PDF file)
4.25 Safe Shelters Using Steel Shipping Containers (PDF file)
4.26 US Army Lightning Protection Safety Guide (PDF file)
4.27 Victims of lightning statistics - countries compared by NLSI
  Of More General Interest:
  1. Fun With Lightning
  2. Vehicles and Lightning
  3. When Lightning Strikes People
  4. Lightning Protection: New Myths & Old Realities
  5. Make Very Tiny Lightning
  6. Lightning Strike Probabilities
  7. Cone of Protection Myth
4.28 Overview of Lightning Detection Equipment
5 Structural Lightning Safety
5.1 Background Issues
  5.1.1 The Lightning Attachment Process and Risk Management of the Hazard
  5.1.2 Atmospheric Charge Redistribution
  5.1.3 Determining the Probability of Lightning Striking a Facility
  5.1.4 Lightning Risk and Hazard Analysis Measurement
  5.1.5 Zone or Fortress Protection Concept
  5.1.6 Effects of Lightning on Assets, Facilities and Structures
  5.1.7 21st Century Lightning Safety For Environments Containing Sensitive Electronics, Explosives, and Volatile Substances
  5.1.8 Overview of Global Lightning Protection Codes and Standards
  5.1.9 The Basis of Conventional Lightning Protection Technology (PDF file)
  5.1.10 Lightning Safety Decision Tree for Facilities
  5.1.11 Going Beyond the Codes: An Expanding List of On-the-Job Tips
  5.1.12 Lightning and Risk Management
  5.1.13 Do Aerosols Affect Lightning?
  5.1.14 Lightning Safety: Basque Language Edition (courtesy Jennifer Indurayne)
  5.1.15 Lightning Discharge and Fundamentals of Lightning Protection - By Vladimir A. Rakov (PDF file)
  5.1.16 The Need for an International Standard of LightningLocation Systems - By Christian Bouquegneau
5.2 Surge Protection Issues
  5.2.1 Ode to the Missing Surge Protector
  5.2.2 Overvoltages: Cause, Effect & Mitigation
  5.2.3 Choosing the Right Level of Protection - Peak Ampere Surge Current Ratings of SPDs
  5.2.4 Advanced Control of Transients
  5.2.5 NLSI Recommendations for Surge Protection Devices
  5.2.6 IEEE Guide for Residential Lightning Protection
  5.2.7 Developing a Consumer-Oriented Guide on Surge Protection
  5.2.8 Surge Protection in Low-Voltage AC Power Circuits: An 8-part Anthology Foreword, Overview, and Hyperlinks - By Francoise Martzloff
  5.2.9 Data Communications and Lightning Protection
  5.2.10 Experimental Investigation and Numerical Modeling of Surge Currents in Lightning Protection System of a Small Residential Structure - By Grzegorz Maslowski et al. (1.4-MB PDF file)
  5.2.11 Surge Protection 101: A Briefing for the Layman
  5.2.12 Surge Protection 102 : Specification Guidelines
  5.2.13 Surge Protection 103 : Applications Discussions
  5.2.14 Photovoltaic (PV) Lightning Protection (Thanks to Citel)
  5.2.15 On the selection and installation of surge protection devices in a TT wiring system for equipment and human safety - Chandima Gomes
  5.2.16 Next Step: DO SOMETHING!
5.3 Grounding and Bonding Issues
  5.3.1 Recommended Grounding Guidelines
  5.3.2 Definition of Terms Used in Grounding
  5.3.3 An Examination of Lightning-Strike-Grounding Physics (PDF file)
  5.3.4 Relative Advantages and Disadvantages of the Principal Types of Earth Electrodes
  5.3.5 Case Study: Grounding Issues with Solutions
  5.3.6 Bonding vs Isolating Approaches in Lightning Protection Practice - By Vladimir A. Rakov (PDF file)
  5.3.7 Grounding Uncertaincies - A Rational Viewpoint
  5.3.8 Clarification About 25 Ohms — The View from NFPA 70: National Electrical Code
  5.3.9 Earth Electrodes for Safety Under Difficult Earth Conditions - Richard Kithil Jr., National Lightning Safety Institute (NLSI)
  5.3.10 Concerns of corrosive effects with respect to lightning protection systems - Aidin Ghavamian, Mohammad Reza Maghami, Shayan Dehghan, Chandima Gome
  5.3.11 “Minimum Bonding Distance Criteria” by Seyedeh Fallah, 34th ICLP Poland.
5.4 Air Terminals
Caution: Many vendors obscure this topic with pseudo-scientific claims based upon vanity, falsehood, and deliberate fraud. Recognized codes and standards should be consulted. Avoid unconventional air terminal designs.
  5.4.1 Fundamentals of Lightning Protection
  5.4.2 Lightning Rods - Recent Investigations
  5.4.3 Scientists Oppose Early Streamer Air Terminals
  5.4.4 Charge Transfer System is Wishful Thinking, Not Science
  5.4.5 Applicability of Lightning Elimination Devices to Substations and Power Lines (Word file)
  5.4.6 ESE Air Terminals Ruling by US Federal District Court (PDF file)
  5.4.7 There Is No Magic To Lightning Protection:
         Charge Transfer Systems Do Not Prevent Lightning Strikes
(PDF file)
  5.4.8 A Critical Review of Nonconventional Approaches to Lightning Protection (PDF file)
  5.4.9 Conventional and Unconventional Lightning Air Terminals: An Update (PDF file)
  5.4.10 A 2017 Photographic Review of ESE Failures by Hartono
  5.4.11 Today's "Modern" Lightning Protection: Mr. Hocus Pocus, Meet Mr. Smoke & Mr. Mirrors
           (PDF file)
  5.4.12 Pararrayos no Convencionales (PDF file)
  5.4.13 Recall Unsafe Lighting Rods (PDF file)
  5.4.14 Misconceptions About Lightning and its Relation to Air Terminal Design Errors (PDF file)
  5.4.15 Failure of the Collection Volume Method and Attempts of the ESE Lightning ROD Industry to Resurrect it - By Abdul M. Mousa (PDF file)
  5.4.16 "Lightning Interception" by Cooray (509-KB PDF file) - Added 1/11/13
  5.4.17 "Failure ESE" by Hartono (657-KB PDF file) - Added 1/11/13
  5.4.18 "DYNASPHERE ESE AIR TERMINALS : ISSUES DESERVING CONSIDERATION" by Richard Kithil, and Orlando Alzamora, National Lightning Safety Institute (NLSI) - Added 11/6/13
  5.4.19"ESE Failure, Resulting Biogas Plant Explosion" Jiri Kutác?, Zbyne?k Martínek, Jan Mikeš, Martin Petrak - Added 12/1/13
  5.4.20 "Pararrayos no Convencionales (Unconventional Air Terminals" César Briozzo, and María Simon - Added 12/1/13
  5.4.21 "The Basis of Conventional Lightning Protection Technology" John M. Tobias, P.E. 1/1/14
  5.4.22 "Linear Hypothesis vs. Threshold Hypothesis"
  5.4.23 Two Codes: NFPA-780 Compared with IEC 62305
  5.4.24 Unconventional Air Terminals (in Spanish), by Reniel E. Suares Perez, Inst. De Geofisi y Astronomia, Habana Cuba
5.5 Site-Specific Issues
  5.5.1 Lightning Hazard Reduction at Wind Farms
  5.5.2 GIS-Based Study of Lightning Damages
  5.5.3 Overview of Lightning Detection Equipment
  5.5.4 Should Lightning Rods be Installed?
  5.5.5 Small Shelters and Safety from Lightning
  5.5.6 Lightning Protection for Telecommunications Facilities
  5.5.7 Lightning Protection for High-Value Facilities: A Peruvian Mining Case Study
  5.5.8 Nuts and Bolts of Jolts: Lightning Safety in the Mining Industry
  5.5.9 Case Study of Lightning Damage to Wind Turbine Blade (PDF file)
  5.5.10 21st Century Lightning Protection for High-Altitude Observatories
  5.5.11 A Technical Basis for Guidance of Lightning Protection for Offshore Oil Installations (PDF file)
  5.5.12 USPLN Cloud-to-Ground Stroke Counts (PDF file)
  5.5.13 Uganda Country Report on Lightning (PDF file)
  5.5.14 Lightning Protection Practices in Bangladesh (PDF file)
  5.5.15 Lightning Protection in India (PDF file)
  5.5.16 Lightning Protection in Kenya (PDF file)
  5.5.17 Lightning Protection in Zambia (PDF file)
  5.5.18 Lightning in the Peninsular Malaysia (PDF file)
  5.5.19 EPA Report on Lightning Hazards to Refineries (PDF file)
  5.5.20 Research On Lightning Sparks Discharge and Protection Measures of Large Floating Roof Tank
  5.5.21 Thunderstorm warning alarms methodology using electric field mills and lightning location networks in mountainous regions
  5.5.22 Storm Detectors - Tests and Application
  5.5.23 Operational analysis of electric field mills as lightning warning systems in Colombia
  5.5.24 The protected space proved to be an undefined term
  5.5.25 Summary of 2011 Direct and Nearby Lightning Strikes to Launch Complex 39B, Kennedy Space Center, Florida
  5.5.26 Lightning Protection Practice for Large-Extended Photovoltaic Installations
  5.5.27 Glow Corona Discharges and Their Effect on Lightning Attachment: revisited
  5.5.28 Overvoltages in Photovoltaic Systems Induced by Lightning Strikes
  5.5.29 Lightning Protection of SOYUZ and VEGA launching pads
  5.5.30 Influence of Thunderstorm-like Wind Velocities on Point Discharge Corona Currents
  5.5.31 Lightning Safety in the Mining Industry
  5.5.32 The Nuts & Bolts of Jolts: A U.S. Air Force Safety Perspective
  5.5.33 ABC's of Lightning Safety for EPCM Operations at High Value Industrial Projects
  5.5.34 NFPA-70 (NEC) Compliance Details for LPS Inspectors
  5.5.35 Lightning and Public Safety Communications
  5.5.36 "Technical Characteristics of LPS Downconductors" (Spanish, Dr. Martinez-Lozano) (PDF)
  5.5.37 "Thunderstorms, Lightning and Climate Change" (Colin Price, Tel Aviv University) (PDF)/td>
6 Reference Information
6.1 General Interest Reference
  6.1.1 Information for the Media
  6.1.2 Little Known Lightning Information
  6.1.3 Weather Factoids
  6.1.4 Mastery, Mystery and Myths about Lightning
  6.1.5 Lightning Safety Discussion Group (A Yahoo! forum)
  6.1.6 USA Today Thunderstorm Info
  6.1.7 The Thunder Mechanism
  6.1.8 The Science of Thunder
  6.1.9 A Celebration of Benjamin Franklin: The Year 1706 and Other Events of that Era
  6.1.10 Wisdom from Benjamin Franklin
  6.1.11 Benjamin Franklin on Leadership
  6.1.12 A Brief History of Lightning Safety in the U.S.
  6.1.13 NLSI's Short Version of Risk Assessment
  6.1.14 Fast Facts About Lightning (PDF file)
  6.1.15 Measured Lightning Activity Worldwide
  6.1.16 A Lightning Safety Quiz (EXE file)
6.2 Lightning Maps
  6.2.1 World Lightning Map
  6.2.2 United States (thunderstorm days/year)
  6.2.3 United States (flash density/year)
  6.2.4 Australia
  6.2.5 France
  6.2.6 Japan
  6.2.7 United Kingdom
  6.2.8 Argentina
  6.2.9 Brasil (thanks to Claudio Silva)
6.3 Photos and Images
  6.3.1 On-site Photos from NLSI Consulting Projects
  6.3.2 Lightning Damage Photos
  6.3.3 A Slide Presentation on Lightning Defenses
  6.3.4 Lightning Behavoir Illustrated
  6.3.5 Lightning Bolt Photos by Others
  6.3.6 Photos of NLSI Activities
6.4 Technical Reference
  6.4.1 Lightning Terms Glossary
  6.4.2 Fundamentals of Lightning (PDF file)
  6.4.3 Matrix of Lightning Protection Subsystems
  6.4.4 NASA's Lightning Primer
  6.4.5 Streamers, Sprites, Leaders, Lightning.
  6.4.6 National Weather Service Manual NWSM 30-4106 (2017), Lightning Protection, Grounding, Bonding, Shielding and Surge Protection Requirements
  6.4.7 IEEE Std 1692-2011 Guide for the Protection of Communications Installations from Lightning Effects
  6.4.8 KSC-STD-E0022 (2013) Bonding, Grounding, Shielding, Electromagnetic Interference, Lightning and Transient Protection, Design Requirements for Ground Systems
  6.4.9 Recommended Lightning Protection Strategy for Explosives Stores Facilities - Dr. Marv Morris, Sandia Labs DOE 2014 2/3/2020
6.5 NLSI Research Program on the Comparative Behavior of Air Terminals
  6.5.1 Experimental Design
  6.5.2 Installation Details
  6.5.3 Summary of Results
  6.5.4 Collaborator Setups
  6.5.5 2005 Details
  6.5.6 2006 Take-Down of Six-Year Experiment
  6.5.7 2012 Experiment at HALOS

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National Lightning Safety Institute
Providing expert training and consulting for lightning problems