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5
Structural Lightning Safety

5.1 Background Issues
 
5.1.1
The Lightning Attachment Process and Risk Management of the Hazard
 
5.1.2
Atmospheric Charge Redistribution
 
5.1.3
Determining the Probability of Lightning Striking a Facility
 
5.1.4
Lightning Risk and Hazard Analysis Measurement
 
5.1.5
Zone or Fortress Protection Concept
 
5.1.6
Effects of Lightning on Assets, Facilities and Structures - By GAM Odam
 
5.1.7
21st Century Lightning Safety For Environments Containing Sensitive Electronics, Explosives, and Volatile Substances
 
5.1.8
Overview of Global Lightning Protection Codes and Standards
 

5.1.9

The Basis of Conventional Lightning Protection Technology - Report of the Federal Interagency Lightning Protection User Group (1.5-MB PDF file)
 
5.1.10
Lightning Safety Decision Tree for Facilities
 
5.1.11
Going Beyond the Codes: An Expanding List of On-the-Job Tips
 
5.1.12
Lightning and Risk Management - By Bill Coffin
 
5.1.13
2014 Version of NFPA 780: A Summary of Changes from the 2011 Version
 
5.1.14
Lightning Safety: Basque Language Edition
(courtesy Jennifer Indurayne)
 
5.1.15
Lightning Discharge and Fundamentals of Lightning Protection - By Vladimir A. Rakov (925-KB PDF file)
 
5.1.16
The Need for an International Standard of LightningLocation Systems - By Christian Bouquegneau
5.2 Surge Protection Issues
 
5.2.1
Ode to the Missing Surge Protector
 
5.2.2
Overvoltages: Cause, Effect & Mitigation 
 
5.2.3
Guidelines for Providing Surge Protection at Commercial, Institutional and Industrial Facilities - By Matthew T. Glennon
 
5.2.4
Advanced Control of Transients - By Rajeev Thottappillil
 
5.2.5
NLSI Recommendations for Surge Protection Devices
 
5.2.6.
IEEE Guide for Residential Lightning Protection
 
5.2.7
Developing a Consumer-Oriented Guide on Surge Protection (404-KB PDF file)
 
5.2.8
Surge Protection in Low-Voltage AC Power Circuits: An 8-part Anthology Foreword, Overview, and Hyperlinks - By Francoise Martzloff
 
5.2.9
Data Communications and Lightning Protection
 
5.2.10
Experimental Investigation and Numerical Modeling of Surge Currents in Lightning Protection System of a Small Residential Structure - By Grzegorz Maslowski et al. (1.4-MB PDF file)
 
5.2.11
Surge Protection 101: A Briefing for the Layman Added 4/14/14
 
5.2.12
Real Lightning Protection Exists and It is Effective Added 8/20/13
5.3 Grounding and Bonding Issues
 
Note:
Do you have a difficult grounding situation? NLSI achieves 10 ohms in virtually any soil situation. Contact us today!
 
5.3.1
Recommended Grounding Guidelines 
 
5.3.2
Definition of Terms Used in Grounding
 
5.3.3
An Examination of Lightning-Strike-Grounding Physics - By C.B. Moore, G.D. Aulich and William Rison (268-KB PDF file)
 
5.3.4
Relative Advantages and Disadvantages of the Principal Types of Earth Electrodes
 
5.3.5
Case Study: Grounding Issues with Solutions
 
5.3.6
Bonding vs. Isolating Approaches in Lightning Protection Practice - By Vladimir A. Rakov (484-KB PDF file)
 
5.3.7
Principles of Grounding of Lightning Protection Systems per NFPA 780
 
5.3.8
Clarification About 25 Ohms — The View from NFPA 70: National Electrical Code
 
5.3.9
EARTH ELECTRODES FOR SAFETY UNDER DIFFICULT EARTH CONDITIONS - Richard Kithil Jr., National Lightning Safety Institute (NLSI)
5.4 Air Terminals
 
Caution:
Many vendors obscure this topic with pseudo-scientific claims based upon vanity, falsehood, and deliberate fraud. Recognized codes and standards should be consulted. Avoid unconventional air terminal designs.
 
5.4.1
Fundamentals of Lightning Protection
 
5.4.2
Lightning Rods - Recent Investigations
 
5.4.3
Scientists Oppose Early Streamer Air Terminals - By Abdul M. Mousa
 
5.4.4
Charge Transfer System is Wishful Thinking, Not Science - A letter from a NLSI contributor
 
5.4.5
The Applicability Of Lightning Elimination Devices To Substations And Power Lines - By Abdul M. Mousa, Fellow, IEEE British Columbia Hydro (Word file)
 
5.4.6
ESE Air Terminals Ruling by US Federal District Court (76-KB PDF file)
 

5.4.7

There Is No Magic To Lightning Protection: Charge Transfer Systems Do Not Prevent Lightning Strikes - By William Rison (32-KB PDF file)
 
5.4.8
A Critical Review of Nonconventional Approaches to Lightning Protection - By M.A. Uman and V.A. Rakov (768-KB PDF file)
 
5.4.9
Conventional and Unconventional Lightning
Air Terminals: An Update
- By Z.A Hartono and I. Robiah (648-KB PDF file)
 
5.4.10
A Review of Studies on Early Streamer Emission and Charge Transfer System Conducted in Malaysia - By Z.A Hartono and I. Robiah (412-KB PDF file)
  5.4.11 Today's "Modern" Lightning Protection: Mr. Hocus Pocus, Meet Mr. Smoke & Mr. Mirrors (140-KB PDF file)
  5.4.12 Pararrayos no Convencionales - Paper presented at IEEE Conference on Power and Measurement Systems, October 2008, Uruguay (1.1-MB PDF file)
  5.4.13 Recall Unsafe Lighting Rods - Letter to the editor of The Sun (192-KB PDF file)
  5.4.14 Misconceptions About Lightning and its Relation to Air Terminal Design Errors - By Z.A Hartono and I. Robiah (960-KB PDF file)
  5.4.15 Failure of the Collection Volume Method and Attempts of the ESE Lightning ROD Industry to Resurrect it - By Abdul M. Mousa (986-KB PDF file)
  5.4.16 "Lightning Interception" by Cooray (509-KB PDF file) - Added 1/11/13
  5.4.17 "Failure ESE" by Hartono (657-KB PDF file) - Added 1/11/13
  5.4.18 "DYNASPHERE ESE AIR TERMINALS : ISSUES DESERVING CONSIDERATION" by Richard Kithil, and Orlando Alzamora, National Lightning Safety Institute (NLSI) - Added 11/6/13
  5.4.19 "ESE Failure, Resulting Biogas Plant Explosion" Jiri Kutác?, Zbyne?k Martínek, Jan Mikeš, Martin Petrak - Added 12/1/13
  5.4.20 "Pararrayos no Convencionales (Unconventional Air Terminals" César Briozzo, and María Simo - Added 12/1/13
  5.4.21 "The Basis of Conventional Lightning Protection Technology" John M. Tobias, P.E. 1/1/14
5.5 Site-Specific Issues
 
5.5.1
Lightning Hazard Reduction at Wind Farms
 
5.5.2
GIS-Based Study of Lightning Damages - By Lin Cao, Wei-Ning Xiang, and Joseph C. Wilson
 
5.5.3
Overview of Lightning Detector Equipment
 
5.5.4
Should Lightning Rods be Installed?
 
5.5.5
Small Shelters and Safety from Lightning
 
5.5.6
Lightning Protection for Telecommunications Facilities
 
5.5.7
Lightning Protection for High-Value Facilities: A Peruvian Mining Case Study
 
5.5.8
Lightning Safety in the Mining Industry
 
5.5.9
Case Study of Lightning Damage to Wind Turbine Blade (428-KB PDF)
 
5.5.10
21st Century Lightning Protection for High-Altitude Observatories
 
5.5.11
A Technical Basis for Guidance of Lightning Protection for Offshore Oil Installations - By Arturo Galvan (384-KB PDF file)
 
5.5.12
USPLN Cloud-to-Ground Stroke Counts (836-KB PDF file)
 
5.5.13
Uganda Country Report on Lightning - Presentation by R. Tusgemereirwe at International Symposium on Lightning Protection, October 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal (1.1-MB PDF file)
 
5.5.14
Lightning Protection Practices in Bangladesh - Presentation by Abidur Rahaman at International Symposium on Lightning Protection, October 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal (3.1-MB PDF file)
 
5.5.15
Lightning Protection in India - Presentation by Isha Parmar at International Symposium on Lightning Protection, October 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal (2.1-MB PDF file)
 
5.5.16
Lightning Protection in Kenya - Presentation by Akinyi Margareta Ocholla and Njoroge Gathuru at International Symposium on Lightning Protection, October 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal (276-KB PDF file)
 
5.5.17
Lightning Protection in Zambia - Presentation by Lubasi Foster Chilesh at International Symposium on Lightning Protection, October 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal (248-KB PDF file)
 
5.5.18
Lightning in the Peninsular Malaysia - Presentation by Mazly Mohamed at International Symposium on Lightning Protection, October 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal (248-KB PDF file)
 
5.5.19
EPA Report on Lightning Hazards to Refineries (231-KB PDF file)
 
5.5.20
Research On Lightning Sparks Discharge and Protection Measures of Large Floating Roof Tank
by HU Hai-yan, LIU Quan-zhen - SINOPEC Research Institute of Safety Engineering, Qingdao, China
 
5.5.21
Thunderstorm warning alarms methodology using electric field mills and lightning location networks in mountainous regions
by López, J., Pérez E., Herrera, J., Aranguren, D. - National University of Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia
Porras, L. - Interconexión Eléctrica S.A E.S.P, Medellín, Colombia
 
5.5.22
Storm Detectors - Tests and Application
by Alain Rousseau - SEFTIM, Vincennes, France
Pierre Gruet - INERIS, Verneuil en Halatte, France
 
5.5.23
Operational analysis of electric field mills as lightning warning systems in Colombia
by D. Aranguren;. J. Inampués;. H. Torres - National University of Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia
J. López;. Ernesto Pérez - National University of Colombia, Medellín, Colombia
 
5.5.24
The protected space proved to be an undefined term
by Tibor Horvath - Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary
 
5.5.25
Summary of 2011 Direct and Nearby Lightning Strikes to Launch Complex 39B, Kennedy Space Center, Florida
by C.T. Mata, A. G. Mata - ESC, Kennedy Space Center, FL, USA
 
5.5.26
Lightning Protection Practice for Large-Extended Photovoltaic Installations
by Dr. Nikolaos Kokkinos - Elemko SA, Athens, Greece
Dr. Nicholas Christofides - Frederick University, Nicosia, Cyprus
Dr. Charalambos Charalambous - University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus
 
5.5.27
Glow Corona Discharges and Their Effect on Lightning Attachment: revisited
by Marley Becerra - Royal Institute of Technology –KTH– Stockholm, Sweden,
ABB Corporate Research Västerås, Sweden
 
5.5.28
Overvoltages in Photovoltaic Systems Induced by Lightning Strikes
by Z. Benesova, R. Haller - University of West Bohemia, Pilsen (CZ)
J. Birkl, P. Zahlmann - DEHN + SÖHNE GMBH + CO.KG. Neumarkt, Germany
 
5.5.29
Lightning Protection of SOYUZ and VEGA launching pads
by E.Bachelier, F.Issac, L.Guibert, W.Quenum - ONERA, Toulouse, France
V. Enjablert - DGA-TA, Toulouse, France
L. Mohedano - APAVE, Bordeaux, France
 
5.5.30
Influence of Thunderstorm-like Wind Velocities on Point Discharge Corona Currents
by F. Avella, J. Díaz, D. Ariza, O. Escobar, F. Román - Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia
 
5.5.31
Lightning Safety in the Mining Industry

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National Lightning Safety Institute
Providing expert training and consulting for lightning problems